COVID-19 Resources

Enabling the discovery of vaccines and anti-viral therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2

Virology Experience

Deep expertise in virology is at the core of Integral Molecular’s 20-year history. Our technologies and R&D services enable over 300 companies working in vaccine research and drug discovery, and have been published in over 200 peer-review publications including in Cell, Science, and Nature. Scientists at Integral Molecular have been on the forefront of combatting viral epidemics including Zika, Ebola, Chikungunya, and now SARS-CoV-2.

SARS-CoV-2 Reporter Virus Neutralization Assays Webinar

Learn how our SARS-CoV-2 RVPs are used to detect neutralizing antibodies

Frequently Asked Questions

RVPs

1What strains or isolates are the RVP spike proteins based on?
  • SARS-CoV-2: Wuhan-Hu-1
  • SARS-CoV-2: Wuhan-Hu-1 D614G
  • SARS-CoV-1: Urbani
  • MERS-CoV: HCoV-EMC
Custom RVPs can be made using spike with specified mutations or specific strains.
2What reporter gene is used to quantify RVP infectivity.
The RVPs are available with a GFP or Renilla luciferase reporter.
3Do the RVPs measure neutralization by patient sera?
All antibody neutralizing responses that block viral infectivity will be detected by this assay. This includes patient sera and purified antibody (IgG, IgM, IgA).
4Are antibodies that cross react with other coronaviruses detected by the RVP assay?
It is possible that antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 RVPs cross react with additional coronaviruses. SARS-CoV-1 and MERS RVPs are also available from Integral Molecular and can be used to test for cross reactivity.
5Do you provide cells with the RVPs? What cells do you recommend?
We provide a clonal stable HEK-293T ACE2 cell line that can be robustly infected by the RVPs. Other permissive cell lines can be used, however in our hands cell lines such as Vero cells result in lower signals.
6Can I bank the ACE2 stable HEK293T cells or are they supplied for one-time usage?
Yes, you are welcome to bank the cells for your own use with RVPs. We ask that you not distribute these cells to others or use them for unrelated applications.
7Should I use GFP or luciferase RVPs?
We recommend either GFP or luciferase RVPs depending on your instrumentation and how you wish to quantitate virus infectivity.
  • GFP output is calculated as a percentage of infected cells and is easy to visualize. GFP detection requires a microscope, high-content imager, or flow cytometer.
  • Luciferase is more sensitive, has a higher signal:background and is generally faster to detect. However, individual infected cells cannot be counted using this method. Luciferase detection requires the use of a consumable substrate and a luminometer to read plates.
8How bright is the green fluorescent reporter?
The fluorescent protein is eGFP. It can be easily seen under a microscope and detected by flow cytometry.
9What assay reagent do you recommend using with the luciferase RVPs?
The reporter is Renilla luciferase, so only reagents compatible with Renilla luciferase should be used. We recommend the Promega Renilla-Glo® Luciferase assay system (E2710) because it gives a stable signal, high signal:background, and high Z’. Note: for optimal detection reproducibility, you should wait 5-minutes after adding the reagent to read.
10Can the RVPs be used in membrane fusion experiments?
The RVPs are not designed for lipid or content mixing based fusion assays. The RVPs are designed to measure viral entry into cells and express a reporter gene once inside the cell.
11Can the samples be freeze-thawed?
We do not recommend repeated freeze-thaw of the RVPs. However, it is possible to thaw and aliquot the RVPs upon receipt without an appreciable loss of titer. We recommend using a flash freeze protocol if possible, such as a dry ice-ethanol bath or liquid nitrogen.
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