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Application Notes


The Lipoparticle

Our quality control measures ensure that Lipoparticles and incorporated receptors remain intact for use in your experiments. Integral Molecular scientists continue to derive and test novel uses for Lipoparticles and will work with you to support new applications.


Antibody Discovery and Phage Panning

Lipoparticles express conformationally-intact membrane proteins at concentrations 10-100 fold greater than conventional sources. Because Lipoparticle preparations do not contain impurities such as inverted membrane proteins or cytoplasmic proteins, they can elicit high titer antibodies against conformationally-complex membrane proteins. Biochemically modified Lipoparticles containing biotin tags or fluorophores enable membrane proteins to be captured on solid supports and visualized for use in flow cytometry based screening and phage display.


Membrane Protein Interaction Kinetics: Biosensors

The Lipoparticle's small size, high membrane protein concentration, and purity enable its use with optical biosensors such as ProteOn and Biacore biosensors. Association rate, dissociation rate, and affinity can be obtained, and panels of antibodies can be rapidly screened.


High Throughput Screening: Ligand Binding

Lipoparticles contain structurally intact membrane proteins at high concentrations, offering improvements in assay sensitivity, specificity, and reproducibility compared with traditional formats such as whole cells or membrane preparations.


Probes and Sensors

Lipoparticles are being used as membrane-delineated molecular probes, incorporating user-defined membrane-anchored proteins, soluble molecules, or enzymes for target interaction and optical signal emission.


Shotgun Mutagenesis Mapping

Shotgun Mutagenesis mapping enables detailed structure-function analysis of complex proteins, including epitope mapping and protein interactions with antibodies, drugs, and natural ligands.


Antibody Epitope Mapping

Identifying the structures that contribute to MAb binding sites (epitopes) can be rapidly achieved using Shotgun Mutagenesis. Epitope maps are commonly used in selecting the most relevant MAbs for therapeutic, diagnostic (e.g. biomarker), and research applications, including vaccine development.


Identifying Functional and Signaling Regions

Because Shotgun Mutagenesis enables the function of protein mutations to be tested in living eukaryotic cells, functional domains within a protein can be explored using standard microplate-based assays. Residues required for specific functions, such as GPCR signaling and virus receptor usage, are readily identified in this way.


Reporter Virus Particles (RVPs)

RVPs are replication-incompetent virus particles that enable viral infectivity studies to be conducted safely, easily, and reproducibly using standard detection instrumentation. RVPs express convenient optical reporter genes upon cellular infection and are offered as quality-controlled, ready-to-use reagents.


Dengue RVPs

Dengue RVPs retain antigenic equivalence to wild-type virions by incorporating specific prME proteins from Dengue serotypes 1, 2, 3, or 4. Dengue RVPs feature a luminescent reporter that provides a rapid and convenient read-out of infectivity, and are validated for both antibody neutralization and enhancement experiments.